(1)Whether the search is justified at its inception; and
(2) whether the search as actually conducted was reasonably
scope to the circumstances that justified the search.
Prong 1 - A search is justified at its inception if there are
"reasonable grounds for suspecting that the search will turn
up evidence that the student has violated or is violating either
law or the rules of the school."
Prong 2 - A search as actually conducted is reasonably related
in scope to the circumstances that justified the search if the
"measures adopted are reasonably related to the objectives of
the search and not excessively intrusive in light of the age and
of the student and the nature of the infraction."
Vernonia School District 47J v. Acton
The following four factors are weighed:
(1) the nature of the privacy interest upon which the search at
(2) the character of the intrusion that is complained of;
(3) the nature and immediacy of the governmental concern at
(4) the efficacy of the means employed for meeting it.